R&D Engineer in Artificial Intelligence and NLP M/F

January digest – Summary of our Novelis Research posts on the different ways AI can be used in healthcare

At Novelis, we are committed to using new technologies as tools to better respond to our customers’ operational challenges and thus better support them in their transformation. That’s why we have an ambitious R&D laboratory, with substantial investments: 26% of revenues are invested in research.

To keep you up to date with the latest scientific news, we’ve created a LinkedIn page dedicated to our Lab, called Novelis Research, check it out!

As we start the new year, let’s take a look at Novelis’ research contributions for the month of January. Our team has had the rewarding opportunity to present recent advances in the use of artificial intelligence in the healthcare sector. Here is an overview of the articles we had the pleasure of sharing with you:

LLMs for relation extraction in clinical text

🤖Clinical Insights: Leveraging LLMs for Relation Extraction in Clinical Text🩺

Relation extraction involves identifying connections between named entities in text. In the clinical domain, it helps extract valuable information from documents such as diseases, symptoms, treatments, and medications. Various techniques can be used for named entity recognition and relation extraction (rule-based systems, machine learning approaches, and hybrid systems that combine both).

Large Language Models (LLMs) have significantly impacted the field of machine learning, especially in natural language processing (NLP). These models, which are trained on large amounts of text data, are capable of understanding and generating natural language text with impressive accuracy. They have learned to identify complex patterns and semantic relationships within language, can handle various types of entities, and can be adapted to different domains and languages. They can also capture contextual information and dependencies more efficiently and are capable of transfer learning. When combined with a set of prompt-based heuristics and upon fine-tuning them on clinical data, they can be particularly useful for named entity recognition and relation extraction tasks.

🎯Why is this essential?🎯By identifying the relationships between different entities, it becomes possible to gain a better understanding of how various aspects of a patient’s health are connected. This, in turn, can help in developing effective interventions. For instance, clinical decision support can be improved by extracting relationships among diseases, symptoms, and treatments from electronic health records. Similarly, identifying potential interactions between different medications can ensure patient safety and optimize treatment plans. Automating the medical literature review process can facilitate quick access to relevant information.

Matching patients to clinical trials

🤖Matching Patients to Clinical Trials Using Semantically Enriched Document Representation🩺

Recruiting eligible patients for clinical trials is crucial for advancing medical interventions. However, the current process is manual and takes a lot of time. Researchers ask themselves, “Which interventions lead to the best outcomes for a particular patient?” To answer this question, they explore scientific literature, match patients with potential trials, and analyze patient phenotypes to extract demographic and biomarker information from clinical notes. An approach presented in the paper “Matching Patients to Clinical Trials Using Semantically Enriched Document Representation” automates patient recruitment by identifying which patients meet the criteria for selection from a corpus of medical records.

This approach is utilized to extract important information from narrative clinical documents, gather evidence for eligibility decisions based on inclusion/exclusion criteria, and overcome challenges such as differences in reporting style with the help of semantic vector representations from domain ontologies. The SNOMED CT ontology is used to normalize the clinical documents, and the DBpedia articles are used to expand the concepts in SNOMED CT oncology. The team effectively overcame reporting style differences and sub-language challenges by enriching narrative clinical documents with domain ontological knowledge. The study involved comparing various models, and a neural-based method outperformed conventional machine learning models. The results showed an impressive overall F1-Score of 84% for 13 different eligibility criteria. This demonstrated that using semantically enriched documents was better than using original documents for cohort selection.

🎯Why is this essential?🎯 This research is a significant step towards improving clinical trial recruitment processes. The automation of patient eligibility determination not only saves time but also opens avenues for more efficient drug development and medical research.

From AlphaFold to AlphaMissense

🤖From AlphaFold to AlphaMissense: Models for Genetic Variations🩺

Missense mutations are responsible for contributing to a number of diseases, such as Marfan Syndrome and Huntington’s Disease.
These mutations cause a change in the sequence of amino acids in a protein, which can lead to unpredictable effects on the organism. Depending on their nature, missense mutations can either be pathogenic or benign.
Pathogenic variants significantly affect protein function, causing impairment in overall organism behavior, whereas benign variants have minimal or no effect on organism behavior.

🎯 Why is this essential? 🎯Despite identifying over 4 million missense variants in the human genome, only around 2% have been conclusively labeled as either pathogenic or benign.
The significance of the majority of missense variants is yet to be determined, making it difficult to predict their clinical implications. Hence, ongoing efforts aim to develop highly effective methods for accurately predicting the clinical implications of these variants.

The missense mutation problem shares similarities with the protein folding problem, both seeking to enhance explainability and predict outcomes related to variations in the amino acid structure.
In 2018, DeepMind and EMBL-EBI launched AlphaFold, a groundbreaking protein structures prediction model. Alphafold facilitates the prediction of protein structures from previously inaccessible amino acid sequences.

By leveraging the capabilities of Transfer Learning on binary labeled public databases (such as BFD, MGnify, and UniRef90), DeepMind proposes AlphaMissense, an AlphaFold finetune that achieves state-of-the-art predictions on ClinVar (a genetic mutation dataset) without the need for explicit training on such data.

✨ The tool is currently available as a freely provided Variant Effect Predictor software plugin.

Introducing GatorTronGPT

🤖Revolutionizing Healthcare Documentation: Introducing GatorTronGPT🩺

Meet GatorTronGPT, an advanced AI model developed by researchers at the University of Florida in collaboration with NVIDIA. This model transforms medical documentation, helping create precise notes. Its ability to understand complex medical language makes it a game-changer.

The language model was trained using the GPT-3 architecture. It was trained on a large amount of data, including de-identified clinical text from the University of Florida Health and diverse English text from the Pile dataset. GatorTronGPT was then employed to tackle two important biomedical natural language processing tasks: biomedical relation extraction and question answering.

A Turing test was conducted to evaluate the performance of GatorTronGPT. Here, the model generated synthetic clinical text paragraphs, and these were mixed with real-world paragraphs written by University of Florida Health physicians. The task was identifying which paragraphs were human-written and which were synthetic based on text quality, coherence, and relevance. Even experienced doctors could not differentiate between the generated and human-written paragraphs, which is a testament to the high quality of the GatorTronGPT output.

✨ Powered by OpenAI’s GPT-3 framework, GatorTronGPT was trained on the supercomputer HiPerGator, with support from NVIDIA.

🎯 Why is this essential? 🎯 By replicating the writing skills of human clinicians, GatorTronGPT allows healthcare professionals to save time, reduce burnout, and focus more on patient care.

Stay tuned for exciting new prospects in the month ahead!

December digest – Summary of our Novelis Research posts on the different ways AI can be used in healthcare

At Novelis, we are committed to using new technologies as tools to better respond to our customers’ operational challenges and thus better support them in their transformation. That’s why we have an ambitious R&D laboratory, with substantial investments: 26% of revenues are invested in research.

To keep you up to date with the latest scientific news, we’ve created a LinkedIn page dedicated to our Lab, called Novelis Research, check it out!

Let’s recap all the Novelis Research articles from December. This month, our team had the pleasure of sharing with you the latest news on the various existing uses of AI in healthcare. Here are the articles we shared with you:

Breast cancer detection

🔎Deep Learning to Improve Breast Cancer Detection on Screening Mammography🩺

Our focus this month is on how AI can be used in healthcare. This post will present a paper titled “Deep Learning to Improve Breast Cancer Detection on Screening Mammography” that covers an innovative deep-learning approach that aims to enhance breast cancer detection in screening mammography. A full-field digital mammography (FFDM) image typically has a resolution of 4000 x 3000 pixels, while a potentially cancerous region of interest (ROI) can be as small as 100 × 100 pixels. The method leverages these clinical ROI annotations to refine mammogram classification, which holds promise for significantly improving screening accuracy.

The technology utilizes an “end-to-end” training approach. It is trained on local image patches with detailed annotations and then adapts to whole images, requiring only image-level labels. This approach reduces dependence on detailed annotations, making it more versatile and scalable across various mammography databases.

🎯Why is this essential? 🎯 This paper is significant due to its potential to improve the accuracy of breast cancer detection in mammograms. It offers a more generalizable and scalable solution compared to traditional methods, reducing the risk of false positives and negatives. This approach could play a crucial role in early breast cancer detection and, therefore, help save lives by identifying cancer at more treatable stages.

Metastatic deposits detection

🤖 Revolutionizing Cancer Diagnosis: The Vital Role of AI in Early Detection🩺

Recent advancements in AI have significantly contributed to cancer research, particularly in analyzing histopathological imaging data. This reduces the need for extensive human intervention. In breast cancer, early detection of lymph node metastasis holds paramount importance, especially in the case of smaller tumors. Early diagnosis plays a crucial role in determining the treatment outcome. Pathologists often face difficulties in identifying tiny or subtle metastatic deposits, which leads to greater reliance on cytokeratin stains for improved detection. However, this method has inherent limitations and can be improved upon. This is where deep learning comes in as a vital alternative to address the intricacies of detecting small tumors early.

A notable approach within deep learning is the normal representative keyset attention-based multiple-instance learning (NRK-ABMIL). This technique consists of fine-tuning the attention mechanism to prioritize the detection of lesions. To achieve it, NRK-ABMIL establishes an optimal keyset of normal patch embeddings, referred to as the normal representative keyset.

🎯Why is this essential?🎯
It is important to continue the research in whole slide images (WSIs) methods, with a particular emphasis on enhancing the detection of small lesions more precisely and accurately. This pursuit is crucial because advancing our understanding and refinement of WSIs can significantly impact early diagnosis and treatment efficacy.

Stay tuned for more exciting insights in the coming month!

November digest – Recap of our Novelis Research posts about the various existing technologies in the field of language modeling, especially with LLM

At Novelis, we are committed to using new technologies as tools to better respond to our customers’ operational challenges and thus better support them in their transformation. That’s why we have an ambitious R&D laboratory, with substantial investments: 26% of revenues are invested in research.

To keep you up to date with the latest scientific news, we’ve created a LinkedIn page dedicated to our Lab, called Novelis Research, check it out!

Let’s recap all Novelis Research articles from November. This month, our team was pleased to share with you the latest news about the various existing technologies in the field of language modeling, with a focus on LLM. Here are the posts we shared with you:

StreamingLLM : enable LLM to respond in real time

🤖 StreamingLLM: Breaking The Short Context Curse ✂️

Have you ever had a lengthy conversation with a chatbot (such as ChatGPT), only to realize that it has lost track of previous discussions or is no longer fluent? Or you’ve faced a situation where the input limit has been exhausted when using language model providers’ APIs. The main challenge with large language models (LLMs) is the context length limitation, which prevents us from having prolonged interactions with them and utilizing their full potential.

Researchers from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Meta AI, and Carnegie Mellon University have released a paper titled “Efficient Streaming Language Models With Attention Sinks”. The paper introduces a new technique for increasing the input lengths of LLMs without any loss in efficiency or performance degradation, all without model retraining.

The StreamingLLM framework stores the initial four tokens (called “sinks”) in a KV Cache as an “Attention Sink” on the already pre-trained models like LLaMA, Mistral, Falcon, etc. These crucial tokens effectively address the performance challenges associated with conventional “Window Attention” in LLMs, allowing them to extend their capabilities beyond their original input length and cache size limits. Using the StreamingLLM framework can help reduce both the perplexity (which measures how well a model predicts the next word based on context) and the computational complexity of the model.

🎯Why is this important? 🎯This technique expands current LLMs to model sequences of over 4 million tokens without retraining while minimizing latency and memory footprint compared to previous methods.

RLHF : adapt AI models with human input

🤖Unlocking the Power of Reinforcement Learning from Human Feedback for Natural Language Processing📖

Reinforcement Learning from Human Feedback (RLHF) is a significant breakthrough in Natural Language Processing (NLP). It allows machine learning models to be refined using human intuition, leading to more contextually aware AI systems. RLHF is a machine learning method that adapt AI models (here, LLMs) using human input. The process involves creating a “reward model” based on human feedback, which is then used to optimize the behavior of an AI agent through reinforcement learning algorithms. Simply put, RLHF helps machines learn and improve by using the insights of human evaluators. For instance, an AI model can be trained to generate compelling summaries or engage in meaningful conversations using RLHF. The technique collects human feedback, often in the form of rankings or preferences, to create a reward model. This model helps the AI agent distinguish between good and bad outcomes and subsequently undergoes fine-tuning to align its behavior with the preferences identified in the human feedback. The result is more accurate, nuanced, and contextually appropriate responses.

OpenAI’s ChatGPT is a prime example of RLHF’s implementation in natural language processing applications.

🎯 Why is this essential? 🎯 A clear understanding of RLHF is crucial to understanding the evolution of NLP and LLM and how they offer coherent, engaging, and easy-to-understand responses. RLHF helps AI models align with human values, providing answers that align with our preferences.

RAG : combine LLMs with external databases

🤖The Surprisingly Simple Efficiency of Retrieval Augmented Generation (RAG)📖

Artificial intelligence is evolving rapidly, with large language models (LLMs) like GPT-4, Mistral, Llama, and Zephyr setting new standards. Although these models have improved interactions between humans and machines, they are still limited by existing knowledge. In September 2020, Meta AI introduced an AI framework called Retrieval Augmented Generation (RAG), which resolves some issues previously encountered by LMs and LLMs. RAG is designed to enhance the quality of responses generated by LLMs by incorporating external sources of knowledge and enriching the LLMs’ internal databases with accurate and up-to-date information. RAG is an AI system that combines LLMs with external databases to provide accurate and up-to-date answers to queries.

✨RAG has undergone continual refinement and integration with diverse language models, including the state-of-the-art GPT-4 and Llama 2.

🎯Why is this essential? 🎯Reliance on potentially outdated data and a predisposition to generate inaccurate or misleading information are common issues faced by LLMs. However, RAG effectively addresses these problems by ensuring factual accuracy and consistency. It significantly mitigates the risks associated with data integrity breaches and dissemination of erroneous information. Moreover, RAG has displayed prowess across diverse benchmarks such as Natural Questions, WebQuestions, and CuratedTrec. This exemplifies its robustness and reliability. By integrating RAG, the need for frequent model retraining is reduced. This, in turn, reduces the computational and financial resources required to maintain LLMs.

CoT : design the best prompts to produce the best results

🤖 Chain-of-Thought: Can large language models reason? 📖

This month, we’ve been diving into the fascinating world of language modeling and generative AI. Today, we’ll be discussing on how to better use these LLMs. Ever heard of prompt engineering? This is the field of research dedicated to the design of better prompts in order for the large language model (LLM) you’re using to return the very best results. We’ll be introducing one such prompt engineering technique: Chain-of-Thought (CoT).

CoT prompting is a simple method that very closely resembles the way in which humans go about solving complex problems. If a problem seems a little long or a little too complex, we often tend to break that problem down into smaller sub-problems that we can more easily reason about. Well turns out this method works pretty well when replicated within (really) large language models (like GPT, BARD, PaLM, etc.). Give the model a couple examples of similar problems, explain how you’d handle them in plain language and that’s all! This works great for arithmetic problems, commonsense, and symbolic reasoning (aka good ol’ fashioned AI like rule-based problem solving).

🎯 Why is this essential? 🎯 Applying CoT prompting has the potential to produce better results when handling arithmetic, commonsense, or rule-based problems when using your LLM of choice. It also helps to figure out where your LLM might be going wrong when trying to solve a problem (though the why of this question remains unknown). Try it out yourself!
Now does this prove that our LLMs can really reason? That remains the million-dollar question.

Stay tuned for more exciting news in the coming month!

Novelis sponsors SS&C Blue Prism Live in Toronto

The Live event organized by our partner SS&C Blue Prism is an immersive and interactive one-day event dedicated to the future of intelligent automation. As a player specialized in offering comprehensive solutions and services that seamlessly combine our process expertise with intelligent automation and AI advances such as generative AI, we are proud to be a Regional Sponsor of this event.

Catherine Stewart, our President for the Americas, will be attending, and we invite you to join her at this dynamic event.

Over the course of the day, you’ll have the opportunity to take part in a variety of conferences giving you all the keys to deploying successful automation strategies within your own organizations.

As a committed partner to elevating company’s operational efficiency while ensuring it’s resilience for the future, we provide a wide range of services. These include not just intelligent automation solutions, but also tailor-made GenAI solutions that cater to large-scale needs. With our team of seasoned AI, NLP, and GenAI PhDs and engineers, we guide you from conceptualization to enterprise-grade application deployment.​

Don’t hesitate to contact us if you’d like to find out more, and join us at the SS&C Blue Prism Live event on 06 December 2023!

Blue Prism Live in Toronto

October digest – Recap of our Novelis Research posts about on language modeling technologies (LLM)

At Novelis, we are committed to using new technologies as tools to better respond to our customers’ operational challenges and thus better support them in their transformation. That’s why we have an ambitious R&D laboratory, with substantial investments: 26% of revenues are invested in research.

To keep you up to date with the latest scientific news, we’ve created a LinkedIn page dedicated to our Lab, called Novelis Research, check it out!

Let’s review all our Novelis Research articles for October. This month was dedicated to linguistic modeling technologies, and LLMs in particular. In two informative articles, our team of experts shared with you the existing technologies. Here are the messages we shared with you:

LLM (large language model) : type of artificial intelligence program that can recognize and generate text.

🤖Language Modelling and Generative AI📖

This month’s focus is on language modeling, an innovative AI technology that has emerged in the field of artificial intelligence, transforming industries, communication, and information retrieval. Using machine learning methods, language modeling creates language models (LMs) to help computers understand human language, and it powers virtual assistants and applications like ChatGPT. Let’s take a closer look at how it works.

For computers to understand written language, LMs transform it into numerical representations. Current LMs analyze large text datasets, and, using statistical and probabilistic techniques, they use

the likelihood of a word appearing in a sentence to create the words’ vector representations. LMs are trained through pretraining tasks. Such a task could involve predicting a word based on its context

(i.e., its preceding or following words). In the sentences “X is a small feline” and “The X ate the mouse”, the model would have to figure out that the X refers to the word “cat”.

Once these representations are created, they can be used for different tasks and applications. One of these applications is language generation. The procedure for generating language using a language model is the following: 1) given the context, generate a probability distribution for the next token over all the tokens in the vocabulary; 2) pick the token with the highest probability; 3) add this token to the sequence, and repeat. A function that computes the performance loss of the model checks for correct responses and updates the model accordingly.

🎯Why is this essential? 🎯 All generative AI models, like ChatGPT, use these methods as the core foundation for their language generation abilities.

✨ New models LLM models are being released every other day. Some of the most well-known models are the proprietary GPT (3.5 and 4) models, while others, such as LLaMa and Falcon, are open-source. Recently, Mistral released a new model made in France, showing promising results.

Optimization of large models : improve model efficiency, accuracy and speed

🤖Unlocking LLM Potential: Optimizing Techniques for Seamless Corporate Deployment✂️

Large Language Models (LLMs) have millions or billions of parameters. Consequently, deploying them for use in corporate tasks is a challenging task, given the limitation of resources within companies.

Therefore, researchers have been striving to achieve comparable or competitive performance from smaller models compared to their larger counterparts. Let’s take a look at these methods and how they can be used for optimizing the deployment of LLM in a corporate setting.

The initial method is called distillation. In distillation, we have two models: the student and the teacher. The student model is trained to replicate the statistical behavior of the teacher model, either focusing on the final predictions or the hidden layers of the model. The second approach, called quantization, involves reducing the precision or bit-width of numerical values, optimizing computational efficiency and memory usage. Lastly, pruning entails the removal of unnecessary or less critical connections, weights, or neurons to reduce the model’s size and computational requirements. The most well-known pruning technique is LoRA, a method crucial for achieving efficient and compact large language models.

🎯Why is this essential?🎯 Leveraging smaller models to achieve comparable or superior performance compared to their larger counterparts offers a promising solution for companies striving to develop cutting-edge technology with limited resources.

Stay tuned for more exciting news in the coming month!

September digest – Recap of our Novelis Research posts about Computer Vision

At Novelis, we are committed to using new technologies as tools to better respond to our customers’ operational challenges and thus better support them in their transformation. That’s why we have an ambitious R&D laboratory, with substantial investments: 26% of revenues are invested in research.

To keep you up to date with the latest scientific news, we’ve created a LinkedIn page dedicated to our Lab, called Novelis Research, check it out!

Let’s recap all of our Novelis Research posts from September. This month has been all about computer vision, and our team has had the pleasure of sharing 4 informative posts about existing technologies with you. These are the posts we have shared with you:

YOLO: A real-time object detection algorithm for multiple objects in an image in a single pass

🤖 YOLO: Simplifying Object Detection 🕵️‍

YOLO Algorithm

YOLO (You Only Look Once) is a state-of-the-art real-time object detection technique in computer vision. It uses a neural network for fast object detection. YOLO divides an image into bounding boxes to capture objects of different sizes. Then, it predicts each box’s object class (is it a dog? a cat? a plant?). How? By learning a class probability map to determine the object class associated with those boxes.

Think of YOLO this way: it works by capturing essential image features, refining them, and pinpointing potential object locations. It learns patterns to identify objects in input images through training on labeled examples. During the prediction process, it analyzes an image just once, quickly detects objects, and removes duplicates along the way.

✨ The latest iteration of YOLO is the v8, by Ultralytics, but the v5 still holds its ground.

🎯 Why is this essential? 🎯 It’s like teaching a computer to instantly spot things! YOLO excels in speed and accuracy, perfect for tasks like robotics or self-driving cars.

OCR and IDP: A technology that converts printed text into machine-readable text

📜 The Magic of Optical Character Recognition 💻

OCR technologies

Have you ever wondered how Intelligent Document Processing (IDP) works? It involves, among other things, converting scanned or handwritten text into editable and searchable text. This process is made possible thanks to Optical Character Recognition (OCR) technologies. In our ongoing series on computer vision tasks (check out our previous post on YOLO), we’ll closely examine OCR and how it works.

When converting an image into text, OCR goes through several steps. First is the pre-processing phase, where the image is cleaned and enhanced to make the text more readable. Next, we move on to the actual character recognition process. Earlier OCR methods identified individual characters or words and compared them to known patterns to extract information. However, most modern OCR methods use neural networks trained to automatically recognize complete lines of text instead of individual characters. The last phase is post-processing, primarily to do error correction. Object Detection methods, like YOLO, can also be used to recognize relevant fields and text regions in documents.

✨ Tesseract is the leading commercial-grade OCR software due to its high customizability and support for numerous languages. Other algorithms, such as the “OCR-free” DONUT, are gaining popularity.

🎯Why is this essential?🎯 OCR technologies enable businesses to accelerate their workflows and individuals to access information effortlessly. It drives innovation and revolutionizes healthcare, finance, education, and legal services.

DINOv2: A vision Transformer model that produces universal features suitable for image-level visual tasks

🗄️DINOv2: The Next Revolution in Computer Vision? 🔍

The field of computer vision is constantly evolving. In our previous posts, we have discussed various methods used in computer vision. However, these approaches often require a large amount of labeled images to achieve good results. Meta Research’s DINOv2 (short for “self-DIstillation with NO labels”) is an innovative computer vision model that utilizes self-supervised learning to remove the need for image labeling.

Simply put, DINOv2 operates without manually labeling each image, a typically time-consuming process. While the model architecture itself is interesting (it follows the masked modeling method that’s very popular in NLP), the data curation process makes DINOv2 such an exciting piece of technology. It first uses embeddings to compare images from a small curated dataset with images from a larger uncurated dataset, then removing similar images from the uncurated dataset to avoid redundancy. Then, it uses cosine similarity to identify and select images similar to those in the curated dataset to label and augment the curated one.

✨The latest version of DINOv2 was introduced by Meta Research in April 2023. It can be used in various visual applications, both for image and video, including depth estimation, semantic segmentation, and instance retrieval.

🎯Why is this essential? 🎯 With DINOv2, you can save time by avoiding the tedious and time-consuming task of manually labeling images. This powerful model makes creating precise and adaptable computer vision pipelines easy. It is particularly useful for specialized industries such as medical or industrial, where obtaining labeled data can be costly and challenging.

Efficient ViT: A high-speed vision model for efficient high-resolution dense prediction vision tasks

🔎Accelerated Attention for High-Resolution Semantic Segmentation🚗

When it comes to real-time computer vision, like with self-driving cars, recognizing objects quickly and accurately is crucial. This is achieved through semantic segmentation, which analyzes high-resolution images of the surroundings. However, this method requires a lot of processing power. To make it work on devices with limited hardware, a group of scientists from MIT have developed a computer vision model that drastically reduces computational complexity.

EfficientViT is a new vision transformer that simplifies building an attention map. To do this, the researchers made two changes. First, they replaced the nonlinear similarity function with a linear one. Second, they changed the order of operations to reduce the number of calculations needed while maintaining functionality. Two elements accomplish this: the first captures local feature interactions, and the second helps detect small and large objects. The simplified Vision Transformer with linear operations generates the segmented image. The output is a segmentation map where each number denotes the class the pixel belongs to, effectively tagging the input image with the correct labels.

✨ This work is primarily done for academic purposes. However the MIT-IBM Watson AI Lab and other organizations have made their work publicly available in 2022 on their GitHub, and updates are continuously being added.

🎯Why is this important? 🎯 Reducing computational complexity is necessary for real-time image segmentation on small devices like smartphones or onboard systems with limited computing power.

Stay tuned for more exciting insights in the coming month!

Top 10 great language models that have transformed NLP in the last 5 years

GPT-4, released by OpenAI in 2023, is the language model that holds one of the largest neural networks ever created, far beyond the language models that came before it. It is also the latest large multimodal model capable of processing images and text as input and producing text as output. Not only does GPT-4 outperform existing models by a considerable margin in English, but it also demonstrates great performance in other languages. GPT-4 is an even more powerful and sophisticated model than GPT-3.5, showing unparalleled performance in many NLP (natural language processing) tasks, including translation and Q&A.

In this article, we present the ten Large Language Models (LLMs) that have had a significant impact on the evolution of NLP in recent years. These models have been specifically designed to tackle various tasks in the Natural Language Processing (NLP), such as question answering, automatic summarization, text-to-code generation, and more. For each model, we have provided an overview of its strengths and weaknesses as compared to other models in its category.

A LLM (Large Language Model) model is trained on a large corpus of text data, designed to generate text like humans. The emergency of LLMs such as GPT-1 (Radford et al., 2018) and BERT (Devlin et al., 2018) was a breakthrough for artificial intelligence.

The first LLM, developed by OpenAI, is GPT-1 (Generative Pretrained Transformer) in 2018 (Radford et al., 2018). It is based on Transformer (Vaswani et al., 2017) neural network, but it has 12 layers and 768 hidden units per layer. The model was trained to predict the next token in a sequence, given the context of the previous tokens. GPT-1 is capable of performing a wide range of language tasks, including answering questions, translating text, and generating creative writing. Since it is the first LLM, GPT-1 has some limitations, for example:

  1. Bias- GPT-1 is trained on a large corpus of text data, which can introduce biases into the model;
  2. Lack of common sense: being trained from texts it has difficulties in linking knowledge to some form of understanding of the world;
  3. Limited interpretability: since it has millions of parameters, it is difficult to interpret how it makes decisions and why it generates certain outputs.

In the same year as GPT-1, Google IA introduced BERT (Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers). Unlike GPT-1, BERT (Devlin et al., 2018) focused on pre-training the model on a masked language modeling task, where the model was trained to predict missing words in a sentence given the context. This approach allowed BERT to learn rich contextual representations of words, which led to improved performance on a range of NLP tasks, such as sentiment analysis and named entity recognition. BERT shares with GPT-1 some limitations, for example, the lack of common sense knowledge about the world, and the limitation in the interpretability to know how it takes decisions and the reason behind to generate some outputs. Moreover, BERT only uses a limited context to make predictions, which can result in unexpected or nonsensical outputs when the model is presented with new or unconventional information.

In the early 2019, surged the third LLM introduced by OpenAI, known as GPT-2 (Generative Pretrained Transformer 2). GPT-2 (Radford et al., 2019) was designed to generate coherent and human-like text by predicting the next word in a sentence based on the preceding words. Its architecture is based on a transformer neural network, similar to its predecessor GPT-1, which uses self-attention to process input sequences. However, GPT-2 is a significantly larger model than GPT-1, with 1.5 billion parameters compared to GPT-1’s 117 million parameters. This increased size enables GPT-2 to generate higher quality text and perform well on a wide range of natural language processing tasks. Additionally, GPT-2 can perform a wider range of tasks, such as summarization, translation, and text completion, compared to GPT-1. However, one limitation of GPT-2 is its computational requirements, which can make it difficult to train and deploy on certain hardware. Additionally, some researchers have raised concerns about the potential misuse of GPT-2 for generating fake news or misleading information, leading OpenAI to initially limit its release.

GPT-2 has been followed by other models such as XLNet and RoBERTa. XLNet (Generalized Autoregressive Pretraining for Language Understanding) was introduced by Google IA. XLNet (Yang et al., 2019) is a variant of the Transformer-based architecture. XLNet is different from traditional

Transformer-based models, such as BERT and RoBERTa, because it uses a permutation-based training method that allows the model to consider all possible word orderings in a sequence, rather than just a fixed left-to-right or right-to-left order. This approach leads to improved performance on NLP tasks such as text classification, question answering, and sentiment analysis. It has state-of-the-art results of NLP benchmark datasets, but like any other model has some limitations. For instance, it has a complex training algorithm (it uses a permutation-based training algorithm), and it needs a large amount of high-quality, diverse training data to perform well.

Simultaneously, RoBERTa (Robustly Optimized BERT Pretraining Approach) was also introduced in 2019, but by Facebook AI. RoBERTa (Liu et al., 2019) improves upon BERT by training on a larger corpus of data, dynamic masking , and training with the whole sentence, rather than just the masked tokens. These modifications lead to improved performance on a wide range of NLP tasks, such as question answering, sentiment analysis, and text classification. RoBERTa is a highly performance LLM, but it has also some limitations. For example, since RoBERTa has a large number of parameters, the inference can be slow; the model is has better proficiency in English, but it does not have the same performance in other languages.

Few months later, Salesforce Research Team released CTRL (Conditional Transformer Language Model). CTRL (Keskar et al., 2019) is designed to generate text conditioned on specific prompts or topics, allowing it to generate coherent and relevant text for specific tasks or domains. CTRL is based on a transformer neural network, similar to other large language models such as GPT-2 and BERT. However, it also includes a novel conditioning mechanism, which allows the model to be fine-tuned for specific tasks or domains. One advantage of CTRL is its ability to generate highly relevant and coherent text for specific tasks or domains, thanks to its conditioning mechanism. However, one limitation of its that it may not perform as well as more general-purpose language models on more diverse or open-ended tasks. Moreover, the conditioning mechanism used by CTRL may require additional preprocessing steps or specialized knowledge to set up effectively.

In the same month as CTRL model, NVIDIA introduced MEGATRON-LM (Shoeybi et al., 2019). MEGATRON-LM is designed to be highly efficient and scalable, enabling researchers and developers to train massive language models with billions of parameters using distributed computing techniques. Its architecture is similar to other large language models such as GPT-2 and BERT. However, Megatron-LM uses a combination of model parallelism and data parallelism to distribute the workload across multiple GPUs, allowing it to train models with up to 8 billion parameters. However, one limitation of Megatron-LM is its complexity and high computational requirements, which can make it challenging to set up and use effectively. Additionally, the distributed computing techniques used by Megatron-LM can introduce additional overhead and communication costs, which can affect training time and efficiency.

Subsequently, a few months later, Hugging Face developed a model called DistilBERT (Aurélien et al., 2019). DistilBERT is a light version of BERT model. It was designed to provide a more efficient and faster alternative to BERT, while still retaining a high level of performance on a variety of NLP tasks. The model is able to achieve up to 40% smaller model sizes and 60% faster inference times compared to BERT, without sacrificing much of its performance accuracy. DistillBERT can perform well in tasks such as sentiment analysis, question answering, and named entity recognition. However, DistillBERT does not perform as well on some NLP tasks as BERT. As well, it has been pre-trained on a smaller dataset compared to BERT, which limits its ability to transfer its knowledge to new tasks and domains.

Simultaneously, Facebook AI released BART (Denoising Autoencoder for Regularizing Translation) in June 2019. BART (Lewis et al., 2019) is a sequence-to-sequence (Seq2Seq) pre-trained model for natural language generation, translation, and comprehension. BART is a denoising autoencoder that uses a combination of denoising objectives in the pre-training. The denoising objectives help the model to learn robust representations. BART has limitations for multi-language translation, its performance can be sensitive to the choice of hyperparameters, and finding the optimal hyperparameters can be a challenge. Additionally, the autoencoder of BART has limitations, such as a lack of ability to model long-range dependencies between input and output variables.

Finally, we highlight the T5 (Transfer Learning with a Unified Text-to-Text Transformer) model, which was introduced by Google AI. T5 (Raffel et al., 2020) is a sequence to-sequence transformer-based. It uses the MSP (Masked Span Prediction) objective in the pre-training, which it consists in randomly masking spans of text with arbitrary lengths. Later, the model predicts the masked spans. Although T5 achieved results in the state of the art, T5 is designed to be a general-purpose text-to-text model, which can sometimes result in predictions that are not directly relevant to a specific task or are not in the desired format. Moreover, T5 is a large model, and it requires a high memory usage, and sometimes takes long time in the inference.

In this article, we have point out the pros and cons of the ten groundbreaking LLMs that have emerged over the last five years. We have also delved into the architectures that these models were built upon, showcasing the significant contributions they have made in advancing the NLP domain.

Novelis developed a ChatGPT connector for SS&C Blue Prism 

With the rapid advancement of technology, businesses are constantly striving to streamline their processes and minimize the resources and time required for repetitive tasks. Robotic Process Automation (RPA) has emerged as a popular solution to help achieve these goals, and Novelis, a leading system integrator company, has developed a ChatGPT connector that significantly enhances the capabilities of RPA software, particularly SS&C Blue Prism. 

How does the ChatGPT connector enhance SS&C Blue Prism? 

The ChatGPT connector, a cutting-edge technology developed by Novelis, offers SS&C Blue Prism the ability to interact with ChatGPT and leverage its advanced natural language processing capabilities. With this integration, SS&C Blue Prism can automate more complex processes that require language-based interactions, such as customer service or data analysis. By harnessing the power of ChatGPT, SS&C Blue Prism can provide faster and more accurate responses to customer inquiries, leading to increased customer satisfaction and improved business outcomes. This innovative solution allows SS&C Blue Prism to stay ahead of the curve in the rapidly evolving landscape of automation technology. 

Use Cases and Usages 

There are numerous use cases for the ChatGPT connector in SS&C Blue Prism, including: 

  1. Customer Service: With the ChatGPT connector, SS&C Blue Prism can automate customer service interactions by understanding natural language and responding appropriately. This can significantly reduce the workload for customer service agents, freeing them up to focus on more complex inquiries. 
  1. Data Analysis: ChatGPT can analyze unstructured data such as customer feedback, social media posts, or reviews, and provide insights that can be used to improve business processes. SS&C Blue Prism can use the ChatGPT connector to automate the analysis of this data, providing valuable insights in real-time. 
  1. Workflow Automation: Blue Prism can use the ChatGPT connector to automate complex workflows that require language-based interactions, such as document processing or contract management. This can significantly reduce the time and resources required for these processes, improving efficiency and productivity. 

The ChatGPT connector developed by Novelis is a valuable tool for businesses that use SS&C Blue Prism to automate their processes. By giving SS&C Blue Prism access to advanced natural language processing capabilities, businesses can streamline their workflows and improve efficiency. Whether it’s automating customer service interactions, analyzing unstructured data, or streamlining complex workflows, the ChatGPT connector is a powerful tool for businesses seeking to increase automation and reduce workload. 

About SS&C Blue Prism 

SS&C Blue Prism is the global leader in intelligent automation for the enterprise, transforming the way work is done. SS&C Blue Prism have users in over 170 countries in more than 1,800 businesses, including Fortune 500 and public sector organizations, that are creating value with new ways of working, unlocking efficiencies, and returning millions of hours of work back into their businesses. Their intelligent digital workforce is smart, secure, scalable and accessible to all; freeing up humans to re-imagine work.   

About ChatGPT  

ChatGPT is a language model developed by OpenAI. The goal is to provide quality assistance by answering questions and generating human-like responses to facilitate communication and information exchange. ChatGPT has been trained on a vast corpus of text data and has the ability to understand and respond to a wide range of topics and subjects. 

Centers of Excellence in Automation (CoE): key to the success of smart automation and a true accelerator of AI deployment

Automation Center of Excellence 

CoEs, often also called “knowledge centers”, have been used in recent years to share accumulated knowledge in different areas such as marketing, pharmaceuticals, automotive, and telecommunications. A CoE can be defined as a group of highly skilled experts who work together to analyze knowledge in a specific area of interest and provide the company with the necessary support to implement technologies in compliance with recommended best practices. 

Similarly, an Automation CoE focuses on integrating a strong framework and successful implementation of automation tools within the company. 

Benefits of the Automation Center of Excellence 

Robotic Process Automation (RPA) has become a must-have for companies looking to increase their operational performance. However, to achieve an even higher level of automation that is adaptable and scalable, intelligent automation is necessary. This is where the crucial role of automation centers of excellence (CoEs) comes in. 

CoEs enable rapid digital transformation while controlling associated risks and ensuring that automation investments are managed wisely. By establishing a CoE, companies can effectively manage and monitor their initiatives with total transparency. The automation CoE thus lies at the intersection of control, speed, and agility. 

  • Efficient robot development cycle: 

An effective Automation Center of Excellence (CoE) helps companies to centralize knowledge and learning data in the field of automation. It also provides access to best practices shared by other business units, focusing on researching RPA platforms and automation processes. This information sharing enables companies to optimize their time, speed up RPA deployment, and simplify automation-related initiative management. 

  • Integration of IT and RPA: 

A well-structured CoE ensures the participation of IT in the project team, where they were previously considered an optional addition. IT teams manage aspects such as infrastructure, security, data confidentiality, and other strategic elements from the start of a project, reducing the risk of automation disruptions. Legacy computer systems are constantly evolving and are regularly updated, which can alter automation at the user interface level. IT teams can help prepare for and anticipate these changes. 

  • Scalability Ease: 

Uncoordinated RPA projects can hinder success and prevent companies from achieving desired levels of automation and organizational objectives. A CoE is critical in preventing these types of failures and establishing a comprehensive vision for the company that allows for easy adaptation of RPA. If the goal is to implement automation throughout the organization, a CoE is essential for successful adoption and promotion of RPA or any other automation software. 

  • Improved Return on Investment (ROI): 

The absence of a CoE can lead to significant costs for integrating RPA technology, as well as difficult-to-identify inefficiencies that hinder automation, RPA acquisition, and support. A thorough evaluation of potential process automation can help avoid a negative return on investment when investing in a project. Multiple factors must be considered, and in some cases, RPA may not be the best solution for improving processes. 

CoE speeds up the deployment of AI. 

  • Deployment of AI 

In a recent study by AI experts, “64% reported that it took their organization at least a month to implement a new model, and 20% reported “6 months or more”.” 

This is where the automation center of excellence (CoE) can make a significant difference. It achieves three critical outcomes: 

  • It streamlines deployment to accelerate time-to-market. 
  • It sets the standard by determining the elements needed for a profitable business plan. 
  • It optimizes resource utilization to execute projects with increased efficiency and significantly reduced expenses. 
  • How do CoEs achieve these results? 

An effective automation CoE uses enterprise platforms and human-automation collaboration to enable rapid integration of models into workflows. This not only allows system robots to access and apply these models in real-time, but also creates conditions for continuous improvement of models using human feedback. Additionally, they drive automated extraction, transformation, quality assurance, and data management with centralized governance and compliance to standards. 

The automation CoE goes beyond just “time” considerations to achieve large-scale automation. It seamlessly integrates technology, processes, and people to deliver value-oriented business outcomes while improving operational efficiency and costs. By taking a business-oriented approach rather than simply adopting technology, it links business context to robotic process automation (RPA), AI-based technologies, process mining, and advanced analytics – and thus provides transformative results at all levels of the enterprise. This approach tackles the process fragmentation that poses a challenge to organizations. The CoE therefore shifts from the logic of automating tasks and enterprise processes to that of intelligent automation. 

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